Probably the Taylor government`s last foreign policy achievement was the Clayton-Bulwer Treaty of 1850 on a planned interoceanic canal through Central America. While the United States and Britain were friendly and the construction of such a canal was decades away from reality, the mere possibility put both nations in a troubled position.  For several years, Britain had conquered strategic points, particularly the mosquito coast on the east coast of present-day Nicaragua. Negotiations took place with Britain, which led to the revolutionary Clayton-Bulwer Treaty. The two countries agreed not to claim control of a canal that could be built in Nicaragua. The treaty encouraged the development of an Anglo-American alliance; its completion was Taylor`s last action as president.  Whig Zachary Taylor took office in 1849 after defeating Democrat Lewis Cass in the 1848 presidential election. Taylor asked John J. Crittenden to become Secretary of State, but Crittenden insisted on taking the office of governor of the Newly Elected Kentucky, and Taylor instead appointed Senator John M. Clayton of Delaware, a close associate of Crittenden.  Taylor and his Secretary of State John M. Clayton both lacked diplomatic experience and came to power at a relatively uneventful time in U.S.
international politics. Their common nationalism allowed Taylor to transfer foreign affairs to Clayton with minimal oversight, even though no decisive foreign policy was established under his administration. Taylor died in 1850 and was succeeded by Millard Fillmore; Taylor`s cabinet members all submitted their resignations shortly after Fillmore took office. Fillmore appointed Daniel Webster secretary of state, and Webster became Fillmore`s chief adviser. Fillmore appointed Edward Everett secretary of state after Webster`s death in 1852.  Finally, Jackson shaped the Democratic Party`s commitment to the principles of limited government, equality, and public virtue as the foundation of a healthy republic. Jackson felt that progress toward a market-oriented society posed dangers to free institutions, attacking privileged monopolies, paper money banks, speculation, excessive government spending, heavy taxes, and consolidated power as diseases that weakened Republican government and public virtue. He sought to revive Jeffersonian principles to reconcile desirable economic advances with the republican ideals of the past. Polk received the document on September 19. February and decided, after the cabinet meeting on February 20, that he had no choice but to accept it.
If he refused, because the House was controlled by the Whigs at the time, there was no certainty that Congress would vote on funding for the continuation of the war. Buchanan and Walker disagreed and wanted more land from Mexico.  Some senators rejected the treaty because they did not want to take Mexican territory; others hesitated because of the irregularity of Trist`s negotiations. Polk waited in tension for two weeks while the Senate thought about it, and sometimes heard that he might be defeated and that Buchanan and Walker were working against it. On March 10, the Senate ratified the treaty by 38 votes to 14, which transcended the political and geographical boundaries of the parties.  The Senate made some changes to the treaty, and Polk feared that the Mexican government would reject the new conditions. Despite these fears, Polk learned on June 7 that Mexico had ratified the treaty.  Polk declared the treaty effective on July 4, 1848, ending the war.  The history of American foreign policy from 1829 to 1861 concerns the foreign policy of the United States during the presidential administrations of Andrew Jackson, Martin Van Buren, William Henry Harrison, John Tyler, James K. Polk, Zachary Taylor, Millard Fillmore, Franklin Pierce, and James Buchanan. Meanwhile, the United States annexed the Republic of Texas, acquired the Mexican cession by defeating Mexico in the Mexican-American War, and divided the country of Oregon with the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
The period began with Jackson`s inauguration in 1829, while the outbreak of the Civil War in 1861 marked the beginning of the following period in the United States.