The Paris Agreement is a historic environmental agreement adopted by almost all countries in 2015 to combat climate change and its negative impacts. The agreement aims to significantly reduce global greenhouse gas emissions in order to limit the increase in global temperature this century to 2 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels, while looking for ways to limit the increase to 1.5 degrees. The agreement contains commitments from all major emitting countries to reduce their pollution from climate change and to strengthen these commitments over time. The Compact provides a means for developed countries to support developing countries in their mitigation and adaptation efforts, and provides a framework for transparent monitoring, reporting and tightening of countries` individual and collective climate goals. Since Trump`s announcement, US envoys have continued to participate in UN climate negotiations – as required – to solidify the details of the deal. Meanwhile, thousands of leaders across the country have stepped in to fill the void created by the lack of federal climate leadership, reflecting the will of the vast majority of Americans who support the Paris Agreement. There has been a wave of participation among city and state officials, business leaders, universities, and individuals in initiatives such as America`s Pledge, the U.S. Climate Alliance, We Are Still In, and the American Cities Climate Challenge. Complementary and sometimes overlapping movements aim to deepen and accelerate efforts to combat climate change at local, regional and national levels. Each of these efforts is focused on the U.S. working toward the goals of the Paris Agreement, despite Trump`s attempts to steer the country in the opposite direction.
The Paris Agreement is the first universal and legally binding global climate agreement adopted at the Paris Climate Change Conference (COP21) in December 2015. The initial commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol has been extended to 2012. This year, delegates at COP18 in Doha, Qatar, agreed to extend the agreement until 2020 (excluding some developed countries that had withdrawn). They also reaffirmed their 2011 commitment at COP17 in Durban, South Africa, to create a new comprehensive climate agreement by 2015 that would commit all major emitters not included in the Kyoto Protocol – such as China, India and the United States – to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions. The new treaty – which would later become the Paris Agreement – is expected to completely replace the Kyoto Protocol by 2020. However, the Paris Agreement entered into force earlier than planned, in November 2016. The second legalistic argument, based on the full text of Article 4.9, is that NDCs must be informed through the global balance sheet. The « GST » is an accountability mechanism described in Article 14 of the Agreement.
It provides regular updates on global mitigation efforts to inform the next set of goals. The first full GST is scheduled for 2023. At the same time, Fransen noted that countries particularly at risk of climate change continue to set ambitious targets at the summit. These countries, including island states like the Maldives, are a « moral beacon » for the rest of the world, she said. For several island states, the success of the Paris Agreement is an existential quest: many can become uninhabitable if the global temperature rises by 1.5 degrees. As of July 2020, the GCF had pledged $10.3 billion by 45 governments (including nine developing countries), $24.3 million by 3 regional governments, and $1.3 million by a municipal government. At the donor conference for the first replenishment of the GCF in October 2019, 27 countries pledged a total of $9.78 billion over the next four years, since then further commitments have been made. Almost half of these countries have doubled or doubled their commitments. The Austrian government`s €100 commitment in September 2020 enabled the GCF to reach the $10 billion mark. In Paris, rich and poor countries joined forces for the first time in a legally binding treaty in which they pledged to keep global warming well below 2°C, the scientifically recommended safe limit, with the aim of not exceeding 1.5°C above pre-industrial levels. The two weeks of tense talks in the French capital were the culmination of 25 years of agonizing climate negotiations since governments were warned of the dangers of climate chaos in 1990.
The failure, discord and blame of those decades were left aside as delegates from 196 countries embraced, cried and applauded in Paris. Of course, since China is the world`s largest emitter, its climate action is at the heart of the success of the Paris Agreement. These transparency and accountability provisions are similar to those in other international agreements. While the system does not involve financial sanctions, the requirements are aimed at easily tracking each nation`s progress and fostering a sense of global peer pressure, discouraging any hesitation between countries that might consider this. However, on COP 24 or 25, the parties were unable to agree on the details of the implementation of Article 6 of the agreement, which deals with the use of carbon markets, and postponed these decisions to COP 26. Although the United States and Turkey are not party to the agreement because they have not declared their intention to withdraw from the 1992 UNFCCC, as Annex 1 countries of the UNFCCC, they will continue to be required to produce national communications and an annual greenhouse gas inventory.  EU leaders celebrated this commitment as a sign of Europe`s climate leadership. However, it is slightly below the Paris Agreement`s 1.5 degree target, according to Climate Action Tracker (which estimates that a 58-70% reduction would be needed). First, let`s rewind. Five years ago, 195 countries came together to forge the Paris Agreement after decades of unsuccessful attempts to comprehensively combat climate change.
Countries – including the United States – have jointly agreed to reduce greenhouse gas emissions based on an average increase in global temperature of less than 2 degrees Celsius (with a target of 1.5 degrees) to keep climate change at bay. Obviously, this was not the year 2020 that anyone had planned. While all countries are expected to present new targets by the end of the month, many will not submit their plans until next year, until the next major UN climate negotiations, which have been delayed due to the pandemic. According to the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), temperatures are expected to have risen by 3.2°C by the end of the 21st century, based solely on the current climate commitments of the Paris Agreement. To limit the increase in global temperature to 1.5°C, annual emissions must be below 25 gigatons (Gt) by 2030. With the current commitments of November 2019, emissions will be 56 Gt CO2e by 2030, double the environmental target. In order to limit the increase in global temperature to 1.5°C, the annual global reduction in emissions between 2020 and 2030 requires a reduction in emissions of 7.6% per year. The four largest emitters (China, the United States, eu27 and India) have contributed more than 55% of total emissions over the past decade, excluding emissions from land-use change such as deforestation. China`s emissions increased by 1.6% in 2018 to a peak of 13.7 Gt CO2 equivalent. The United States emits 13% of global emissions and emissions increased by 2.5% in 2018. The EU emits 8.5% of global emissions and has fallen by 1% per year over the last decade.
Emissions decreased by 1.3% in 2018. India`s 7% of global emissions increased by 5.5% in 2018, but its per capita emissions are among the lowest in the G20.  A series of announcements over the weekend at a United Nations climate summit raised hopes that global emissions could still be in line with the goals of the Paris Agreement and avoid the more severe effects of climate change. These new promises come in a year that must have been an important test for the global deal, even before the Trump administration`s withdrawal and the global spread of Covid-19. When the agreement is signed on the 5th. In October 2016, US President Barack Obama said: « Even if we achieve all the goals. we will only reach part of where we need to go. He also said that « this agreement will help delay or avoid some of the worst consequences of climate change. It will help other countries reduce their emissions over time and set bolder targets as technology advances, all within a robust transparency system that allows each country to assess the progress of all other nations.
[ 27]  Following a campaign promise, Trump – a climate denier who claimed that climate change was a « hoax » committed by China – announced in June 2017 his intention to withdraw the United States from the Paris Agreement. Yet, despite the president`s statement from the rose garden that « we`re going out, » it`s not that easy. .